- Published in issue 7/2019 on page 104
From Tubes to Silicon
With an interesting intermezzo
We have been living in the electronic age for well over a century now, since the invention of the triode by Lee de Forest in 1907. Roughly speaking, in the first half of this period electronics was based solely on electron tubes, and in the second half almost entirely on silicon semiconductors in discrete or integrated form. In a relatively short transition period, electronic equipment was designed and built with neither tubes nor silicon semiconductors, but instead with selenium rectifiers and germanium diodes and transistors. Let’s have a closer look at these components.
- Source: E.A. Harty – Characteristics and applications of Selenium-Rectifier Cells – Transactions on Electrical Engineering, volume 62, October 1943.
- Philips PM3230 oscilloscope (Dutch)
- Philips IC2000 radio
- Historical Study collection of the faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Informatics of the University of Twente
- Philips PE4804 documentation (Dutch)
- Philips PE4804-05 documentation (Dutch)
- Replacing selenium bridge rectifiers
- Sleepless nights from a pile of onions (Dutch)
- Metal whiskers (Wikipedia)
- The OC171 Mystery
- The AF11x problem