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Voltage levels Control Relays

This circuit proves that microcoprocessors, PCs and the latest ultra-accurate DACs are overkill when it comes to controlling four relays in sequence in response to a rising control voltage in the range 2.4 V – 12 V. By using equal resistors in ladder network R1-R5, equal intervals are created between the voltages that switch on the relays in sequence. Each resistors drops 1/5th of the supply voltage or 2.4 V in this case, so we get +2.4 V = Re1, +4.8 V = Re2, +7.2 V = Re3, +9.6 V = Re4. Obviously, these switching levels vary along with the supply voltage, hence the need to employ a stabilised power supply.
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