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Gentle Battery Regulator


This small but very effective circuit protects a lead-acid battery (12-V solar battery or car battery) against overcharging by a solar module when the incident light is too bright or lasts too long. It does so by energising a fan, starting at a low speed when the voltage is approximately 13.8 V and rising to full speed when the voltage exceeds 14.4 V (full-charge voltage). The threshold voltage (13.8 V) is the sum of the Zener diode voltage (12 V), the voltage across the IR diode (1.1 V), and the base-emitter voltage of the 2N3055 (0.7 V).
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