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4 Amps Photovoltaic Charge Controller

4 Amps Photovoltaic Charge Controller
The use of solar photovoltaic (PV) energy sources is increasing due to global warming concerns on the one hand, and cost effectiveness on the other. Many engineers involved in power electronics find solar power tempting and then addictive due to the ‘green’ energy concept. The circuit discussed here handles up to 4 amps of current from a solar panel, which equates to about 75 watts of power. A charging algorithm called ‘pulse time modulation’ is introduced in this design.
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Gerber file

CAM/CAD data for the PCB referred to in this article is available as a Gerber file. Elektor Members can exclusively download these files for free as part of their Membership. Gerber files allow a PCB to be produced on an appropriate device available locally, or through an online PCB manufacturing service. Elektor recommends its business partner Eurocircuits as the company of choice for its own prototypes and volume production in selected cases.

COMPONENT LIST
Resistors
R1 = 15kOhm
R2,R3 = 3.3kOhm 1%
R4 = 2.2MOhm
R5 = 1kOhm
P1 = 5kOhm preset
Capacitors
C1 = 22µF 25V, radial
Semiconductors
D1 = MBR1645G (ON Semiconductor)
D2 = LED, 5mm
IC1 = TL431ACLP (Texas instruments)
T1 = IRFZ144 IRFZ44NPBF (International Rectifier)
T2 = 2SC1815 (Toshiba) (device is marked: C1815)
T3 = BC547
Miscellaneous
K1,K2 = 2-way PCB terminal block, lead pitch 5mm
PCB # 110751-1
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